Old Spice - Annotated Bibliography

An Overview

Clipper ship wallpaper. 2013.
Oldspice.com. PNG file. 30 March 2014.

Starting at the beginning, let us explore the history of Old Spice. Four sources were used for this theme of the research project, and these sources will be introduced in linear order moving forward in time. John Biebel has done some extensive research on the origins of Old Spice, and equally important, the origins of the Shulton Company, founded in 1934 by William Lightfoot Schultz. Biebel goes on to discuss Schultz’s inspirations for perfumery and offers interesting information about how the manufacturing plant was transformed during World War II to create military products. Tim Girvin’s article offers a great perspective on what has made Old Spice so masculine over the years, from the smell itself to the nautical theme that Schultz wanted to use, which uses trade ships in the logos to invoke the feeling of adventure to consumers. Girvin shares his story of how he personally identifies with Old Spice as a smell he grew up with being around his father and grandfather, which shows how resilient the brand remains today. The next big step in the history of Old Spice is introduced by the Basenotes.net website, which supplies facts about how Old Spice was taken over in 1970 by a large chemical company called American Cyanamid. During this time, George Schultz was in control of Shulton after the passing of his father, William, for 20 years before deciding to sell Shulton off. Shulton then became the consumer products division of American Cyanamid, keeping the Shulton name. Lastly, Robert Berner gives a brief synopsis of the most recent acquisition of Old Spice, which was sold off to the consumer product giant Procter and Gamble in 1990. American Cyanamid sold the Old Spice brand for a hefty $300 million to P&G. Since then, P&G has introduced several new products and has taken huge marketing steps to ensure Old Spice’s survival and regain its popularity with a new, younger generation.

The advertising strategies of Old Spice have drastically changed over the years, as most companies have, mainly due to the introduction of the Internet and through the use of social media. Phillip Dougherty presented an article in 1981 published by The New York Times that interviewed the vice president of marketing for Shulton, Stephen Rothschild. Rothschild explicitly stated that 90% of their marketing budget was spent on television commercials, while the other 10% was spent on print advertisements, primarily in magazines. This is vastly different from how Old Spice advertises today. Robert Berner’s article talks about Old Spice’s transition from a product and smell associated with someone’s grandfather to a product that today’s youth is interested in. When Procter and Gamble acquired Old Spice back in 1990, a big obstacle was trying to do just that – make Old Spice relevant again. One instance of doing so was giving out millions of free samples to 5th grade students in health class. By forcing the product onto children, they imprinted their memory with Old Spice. In 2010, Procter and Gamble hired a successful advertisement agency, Wieden + Kennedy, to help re-brand Old Spice. Andrew Newman writes about what may be the most successful advertising campaign ever – the “Smell like a man, man” campaign, starring Isaiah Mustafa. Through the use of Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, and television, Old Spice was reborn overnight. Mark Borden, a writer and editor, interviewed the creative director of Wieden + Kennedy, Iain Tait, to talk about what made the “Smell like a man, man” campaign, so successful. Borden also dives into what it took for an advertisement agency to gain the trust of a giant, global company, P&G, to let them respond real-time during this social media advertising spree.

Old Spice’s parent company, Procter and Gamble, is one of the world’s largest companies – but what does P&G stand for? According to P&G’s website, which is clearly going to be biased, they are bursting with integrity. P&G hold themselves to the highest standard in all categories; from production and manufacturing to volunteering and employee pay scales. Amanda Ponzar wrote an article in 2012 for United Way’s website that credited P&G with the Spirit of America award for philanthropy for their continued dedication to charitable donations to help health, education, and children around the world. In another article written by Andrew McDougall, McDougall credits P&G for a breakthrough technology that will allow them to do skin allergy testing for all of their products in test tubes, resulting in even less testing on animals. This shows that P&G truly seems dedicated to leaving the world a better place and recognizing their responsibility as an extremely wealthy company to do what they can to make that happen.

Old Spice Annotated Bibliography

Basenotes. Basenotes.net. 1999. Web. 19 Feb. 2014.
Logo. Basenotes.net. PNG file. 30 March 2014.

The Old Spice scent was very prominent during the early 1940’s. Over the course of World War II, Old Spice became synonymous with United States soldiers. Wherever United States troops were stationed, Old Spice was there with them, keeping them fresh with its unique scent. This is likely a strong reason that it became world renowned so quickly. With soldiers in so many corners of the globe at one time using Old Spice, the brand was given an enormous amount of global exposure. After the death of William Lightfoot Schultz in 1950, his son George took control of the Shulton Company. However, just 20 years later in 1970, the Shulton Company was sold to American Cyanamid. After American Cyanamid’s acquisition, the range of Old Spice products began to rapidly increase, mostly expanding into a wider variety of different scents.

Robert Berner is a senior writer for BusinessWeek who concentrates mostly on topics such as consumer credit, high finance, the medical industry, and government spending. Berner previously wrote for The Bennington Banner in Vermont, The Patriot Ledger in Quincy, Massachusetts, and The Wall Street Journal. Berner has won several awards for his writings.

This article contributes to the research of Old Spice because it talks about a major milestone of the brand history, which was the acquisition by the global consumer products giant Procter and Gamble. The article also shows the challenges that Procter and Gamble faced to continue and improve the success of the Old Spice brand in a changing world of men’s hygiene products.

Berner, Robert. “Old Spice’s Extreme Makeover.” Businessweek.com. Bloomberg Business
            Week Magazine, 31 Oct. 2004. Web. 18 Feb. 2014.
Logo. Businessweek.com. PNG file. 30 March 2014.

In 1990, Procter and Gamble purchased the Old Spice brand from American Cyanamid for a little more than $300 million dollars. At the time, Old Spice was a brand that was fading into an aging generation, and Procter and Gamble knew they had to make a move on the younger generation if they wanted to keep their Old Spice investment relevant in today’s market. Trying to reshape the brand from what was primarily associated with someone’s grandfather’s aftershave into a product that teenage boys would be proud to wear was going to be a challenge, especially for a company that normally mass targeted women for the bulk of their other products, such as Pampers and Tide. In a stroke of genius, Procter and Gamble began giving away samples of their newest Old Spice deodorant to schools nationwide to distribute in health classes for fifth grade boys. By capturing the attention of a generation barely old enough to need deodorant, they were locking up sales for decades to come.

Basenotes.net is an online fragrance guide to the world of fragrances. The site features a fully searchable database of over 20,000 fragrances with over 90,000 consumer reviews. Since the website launch in 2000, Basenotes has been featured in several prestigious newspapers and magazines, such as The New York Times, Men’s Health, Cosmetics Magazine, among several others.

The basenotes.net website is important in the research of Old Spice because it contributes additional historical facts about the transition of the Shulton Company to American Cyanamid. The site also provides Old Spice’s fragrance notes, which are the ingredients and extracts used in creation of the fragrance. Knowing the notes of the fragrance also give consumers a better idea of what the fragrance smells like fresh out of the bottle, how it smells after application, and how long the scent will last.

Biebel, John. “How Old Spice Has Always Remained New.” Fragrantica.com. 21 May 2012.
             Web. 20 Feb. 2014.
Logo. Fragtantica.com. PNG file. 30 March 2014.

In John Biebel’s article about the history of Old Spice, he gives an in-depth look at the history of William Lightfoot Schultz, the founder of the Old Spice brand and smell. Schultz created the Shulton Company in New York of 1934 and began selling soap and toiletries. Inspired by the scent of his mother’s rose jar, he eventually began developing fragrances. In 1937 he produced his first fragrance. Although Old Spice is now known to be used exclusively by men, Schultz’s first fragrance was actually women’s perfume called Early American Old Spice. By 1938, he had developed the first version of men’s Old Spice, which became an instant success. Soon after, Old Spice was being shipped to over 75 different countries worldwide. Another major selling point of the Old Spice product line in the late 1930s and early 1940s was the reusable packages that the products came in.

John Biebel is primarily a web and software interaction designer by trade, but he also has deep interests in perfumery and scent sciences.

This article aids in the research of Old Spice because it gives a good look into the original history of the brand, the history of the Shulton Company, and the history of the man behind it all – William Lightfoot Schultz. The article also provides interesting historical facts about how Schultz’s company temporarily converted its manufacturing plant during World War II to assist in the war effort before being relocated to its more permanent location of Clifton, New Jersey.

Borden, Mark. “The Team Who Made Old Spice Smell Good Again Reveal’s What’s Behind
             Mustafa’s Towel.” Fastcompany.com. Fast Company Inc., 14 July, 2010. Web. 22 Feb.
             2014.
Logo. Fastcompany.com. PNG file. 30 March 2014.

Wieden + Kennedy of Portland, a popular advertisement agency that was hired by Procter and Gamble to help rejuvenate the Old Spice brand, are the real geniuses behind these revolutionary Old Spice advertisements. In an interview conducted by Mark Borden with Iain Tait, the global interactive creative director for Wieden + Kennedy, they discuss the origins of the Old Spice online campaign in 2010, why they chose the mediums Twitter and YouTube, and why ‘real time’ responses are such an important part of the way they advertised. During the non-stop two-day Twitter, Facebook, YouTube video response tirade to the fans and consumers, Tait discusses the variety of people that were chosen to respond to. They split up the responses between famous people, people with a large following on Twitter, and people with very few or no Twitter followers to show that they were not going to leave any group out. One of the most interesting parts of the interview is discussing Procter and Gamble’s trust in Wieden + Kennedy to answer these questions in real time, where obviously they could have potentially wrecked the whole campaign and tarnished Procter and Gamble’s good name with an insensitive blunder on a writer’s part.

Mark Borden is a Senior Editor at Fast Company magazine. In 2008, Borden introduced the annual Most Creative People in Business franchise, which focuses on visionaries who are focused on improving the world in areas of expertise ranging from advertising, technology, and medicine.

This interview was crucial to the research project because it went behind the scenes with the man, Iain Tait, who is the lead director in this unprecedented successful advertising campaign. The interview talks about what made it a success, asks questions about the actor Isaiah Mustafa who had everyone buzzing back in 2010, and about what it takes for an advertisement agency to gain the trust of a global conglomerate to improve their brand image.

Dougherty, Phillip. “Advertising; Shulton’s New Men’s Fragrance.” NYTimes.com. The New
             York Times Company. 14 Jan. 1981. Web. 16 Feb. 2014.
 
Logo. Nytimes.com. PNG file. 30 March 2014.

In an article written by Phillip H. Dougherty in 1981 of The New York Times, it interviews some of the top staff members of Shulton. Shulton at the time was the consumer products and toiletries division of American Cyanamid. The vice president of marketing, Stephen Rothschild, talked about the ways that Shulton advertise their fragrance lines. In 1981, 90% of the company’s media advertising was spent on television advertisements, mostly airing during major sports programming, in an attempt to successfully target men in the 18-34 age bracket. The rest of the media advertising was spent on magazines. Rothschild went on to explain that magazines were primarily used during the off-months of the television advertisements, but were also effective because they gave the consumer a good look at the actual products.

Phillip Dougherty wrote the advertising column of The New York Times for 22 years, from 1966 to 1988. Dougherty was held in the highest regard by his peers and readers for his devotion to advertising. In 1981, he began broadcasting his reports on the radio, and was known as the voice of advertising. He was inducted into The Advertising Hall of Fame in 1990 for his life’s work.

This article written by Dougherty was about the Shulton division of American Cyanamid, the company that owned and controlled the Old Spice brand, more than Old Spice itself. However, it contributes to the research because it displays how different the advertising world was in the early 1980s compared to today. In 1981, there was no internet. There was no social media. Companies generally had two mediums to present their advertisements, one being television, the other being print, whether it be magazine or newspaper. This article gives us a glimpse into the tactics of advertising long before the popular use of Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter.

Girvin, Tim. “Old Spice: Scent, Brand Story, Social Media: Legacies and Innovation.”
             Girvin.com. 17 Sept. 2010. Web. 19 Feb. 2014.
Logo. Girvin.com. PNG file. 30 March 2014.

In an article written by Tim Girvin, he explores what makes Old Spice masculine. The Old Spice logo, since the beginning of the brand, has always contained either a ship, yacht, or sailboat, and has changed over time. The nautical theme that William Schultz was inspired to use in the birth of Old Spice has remained a strong presence with the brand to this day. The ships invoke a feeling of adventure, which men automatically identify with masculinity. The boats also symbolize trade from colonial times, specifically the trading of spices, hence the name Old Spice. The masculine, spicy smell that is Old Spice often conjures images of a seafaring explorer importing the rare ingredients from faraway lands that, when blended perfectly together, forms this wildly popular aroma for men.

Tim Girvin is the founder of Girvin : Strategic Branding and Design. Girvin and his team of writers provide people with better understandings of the stories of a brand. Girvin has an impressive client list, including Procter and Gamble, Levis, Adidas, Gucci, and several others. Girvin is also responsible for generating interest for companies and supplying people with information about these companies.

This is an interesting article that helps in the research of Old Spice’s corporate identity because it tells the story of what makes Old Spice so masculine, which is one great example of why it has remained popular for close to 80 years. Also with inside knowledge of the company, as Girvin explains that he knew Procter and Gambles Global Brand Creative Director at the time, Art Herstol, he talks about how it was Herstol’s responsibility to carefully plan how the Old Spice brand would evolve after being acquired by Procter and Gamble.

McDougall, Andrew. CosmeticsDesign-Europe. William Reed Business Media. 17 Jan.
             2014. Web. 25 Feb. 2014.
Logo. Cosmeticsdesign-europe.com.
PNG file. 30 March 2014.

In an article written by Andrew McDougall of CosmeticsDesign-Europe.com, he delivers an interesting interview from Dr. Harald Schlatter, Principle Scientist Communications from Procter and Gamble. P&G claims to have developed the first skin allergy test that can be done without the use of animal testing for its products. P&G sells a plethora of products that are intentionally used on human skin, and testing for skin allergies is a very critical part of the manufacturing and developing process. The test that has been developed will further reduce the need for animal testing at P&G, something that many people and organizations will be glad to hear. The new test, called the Direct Peptide Reactivity Assay, has already been approved by the European Reference Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal Testing and will soon be used globally. The test is performed with the use of test tubes and is much faster and efficient than testing on animals.

Andrew McDougall is a deputy editor at William Reed Business Media France. McDougall graduated from Cardiff University and has experience as an International Sales Executive at GDS International and was an Editorial Assistant at BBC Sport Wales. McDougall has three years of writing and journalism experience as well as web and financial writing qualifications.

This article is important to the research of Old Spice because it shows that Old Spice’s parent company, Procter and Gamble, continues to be innovative and invests a significant amount of money in an attempt to continually improve their business and brand image. For years P&G have been reducing their testing on animals, but this new skin allergy test is a milestone for the company. It is also important to know that it will be used globally - especially in countries where animal cruelty and animal testing is not as ridiculed as it is in the United States.

Newman, Andrew. “Old Spice Argues That Real Men Smell Good.” New York Times
             16 June 2010: B3. Search Proquest. Web. 20 Feb. 2014.
Logo. Nytimes.com. PNG file. 30 March 2014.

In 2010, trying to break up the monotony of selling deodorant and after-shave products, Old Spice introduced a new line of body wash. But there were some obstacles; how could Old Spice market a product to men that most men thought would be feminine? And since women do most of the shopping, how could Old Spice get women to buy this product for their men? Easy, create a marketing campaign using a highly attractive man that addresses the ladies. The “Smell like a man, man” campaign did just that, using an actor named Isaiah Mustafa. With his toned body and masculine voice, he specifically addresses the ladies in the commercial, telling them that even though, sadly, their man did not look like him, they could smell like him. The advertisement was a complete success as it became an immediate internet sensation. The “Smell like a man, man” advertisement garnered a record amount of YouTube hits overnight. But Old Spice did not stop there. To further promote the campaign, Old Spice offered to have Isaiah Mustafa, the Old Spice man himself, answer people’s questions submitted via Facebook and Twitter, using YouTube to respond. Over the span of two days, 185 videos were uploaded featuring Mustafa answering these questions. This showed the people how dedicated Old Spice was to its customers and fan base, and it worked. After the two day ordeal, Old Spice went from 3,000 Twitter followers to 48,000.

Andrew Newman is an experienced writer who frequently contributes to the business, art, and style section of The New York Times, Adweek, Salon.com, and other published newspapers and websites. His work has won him the national Alternative Newsweekly Award in the Arts Feature category in 2003.

Newman’s article in The New York Times contributes to the Old Spice project because it talks about the genius behind the revolutionary “Smell like a man, man” advertising campaign. This campaign alone not only transformed how consumers view the Old Spice brand, but also set a very high benchmark for all companies to try to live up to. This article proves how powerful of an advertising tool that social media has become.

Ponzar, Amanda. “P&G Taps Brand Power to Improve Children’s Lives Around the World.”
             United way. United Way. 3 May 2012. Web. 25 Feb. 2014.
Logo. Unitedway.org. PNG file. 30 March 2014.

In this article written by Amanda Ponzar on behalf of the United Way, it recognizes Procter and Gamble for their continued efforts around the world to contribute money to charities and volunteer time. With much of the focus on children’s health and education, P&G globally donates in excess of 100 million dollars annually to these and other causes, and P&G employees volunteered a staggering 52,500 hours of their own personal time in 2011 alone. The United Way awarded P&G with the Spirit of America award for philanthropy in 2012.

Amanda Ponzar is the Director of Key Stakeholder Communications at United Way Worldwide. Before her current position, she worked as a writer for Ponzar Creative for 11 years. Ponzar has a ridiculously impressive resume, including educations from both Harvard Business School and Pennsylvania State University. Ponzar specializes in Corporate Social Responsibility and citizenship, nonprofits, philanthropy, education, financial industry, and healthcare.

This article by Amanda Ponzar shows the point of view from a large, non-profit charity organization, the lengths that Procter and Gamble go through to help make the world a better place. Since Old Spice is just a small part of this much larger parent company, P&G, it is important to spread awareness of the things Procter and Gamble are doing around the world, as they use their vast resources to help improve it.

Procter and Gamble. “Our Values and Policies.” Procter and Gamble. P&G, 2014.
             Web. 24 Feb. 2014.
Logo. Procterandgamble.com.
PNG file. 30 March 2014.

According to the “Our Values and Policies” PDF written by Procter and Gamble, which applies to all brands owned by Procter and Gamble including Old Spice, they give a wide overview of their ethics: how they treat and pay employees, safety policies, how they hold their products to the highest standard, meeting or exceeding all expectations and requirements from governmental agencies and consumers, and several other topics of interest. In the community relations section, P&G boasts about their commitment to community relations, and how they provide financial support towards education, health, environmental, and other organizations.

The author of this PDF is unable to be found.

This PDF written by Procter and Gamble gives some good insight on the inner workings of this company. P&G makes some bold claims and hold their company to the highest of standards, both nationally and internationally. This aids in the research of Old Spice because it shows how dedicated P&G is to sustaining their ethical principles, as they inform curious readers about the importance of being fair to employees and consumers, adhering to government policies, and overall leaving the world a better place.